The International Police Executive Symposium (IPES) brings police researchers and practitioners together to facilitate cross-cultural, international and interdisciplinary exchanges for the enrichment of the policing profession. It encourages discussions and writing on challenging topics of contemporary importance through an array of initiatives including conferences and publications.

Guidelines for Contributors

The World Police Encyclopedia will contain articles on each of the United Nations member countries plus Switzerland and Taiwan, arranged alphabetically in two volumes. This encyclopedia will be the definitive reference work on all the policing systems worldwide. It will serve your colleagues, students, scholars, and the public in academic and public libraries around the world for many years. The intention is to produce an encyclopedia that will provide both an essential resource that is reliable for checking facts and a solid starting point for wider exploration. To this end, it is important that contributors read and follow the instructions on style, format, and submission of entries, and keep strictly to the deadlines, word-lengths, and scope agreed with Dr. Das.


HELPLINE Citations/References
SCOPE Special cases
ARRANGEMENT Bibliographical style details
READERSHIP AND LEVEL Examples of bibliographic formats
COVERAGE AND TREATMENT Additional Style Points
Background Material Abbreviations and Acronyms
Contextual Features Definitions
Police Profile Dates and time
Police Education, Research, and Publications Emphasis
Bibliography Fact-checking
Fact/Interpretation Hyphenation
International Scope Italics
Structure and Style Non-sexist usage
Headword Notes
Subheads Tables, maps, figures
Length of entries Deadlines
Dual Structure Submission of Entries
Bibliographies, References, Further Reading Permissions for quotations and borrowing from yourself
Number of items to be listed Questions

If you have queries about level, style, scope, structure, or format not covered in these guidelines, please call Kate Aker, Director of Development at Routledge, between 8am and 5pm Eastern Time, at (917) 351 7126, or email


The World Police Encyclopedia will be the definitive reference source on the more durable aspects of police forces around the world.

For each country, content will include:

  • Background Material – summarizing population data, noting racial/ethnic divisions, languages, religions, per capita income, and major economic activities
  • Contextual Features – specifying the political structure and the criminal justice system
  • Police Profile – detailing a police force’s composition, organization, functions, training, firearm use, and accountability.
  • Police education, research, and publications will also be noted.

The elements of these four main article divisions are spelled out in detail under Coverage and Treatment.


The WPE will be a two-volume work containing 195 entries, one for each United Nations member country plus Switzerland, Taiwan, Interpol, Europol, Civpol, and the European Union, and approximately one million words. Entries will be organized alphabetically for ease of access.


Our aim is to provide a helpful reference work through which a variety of users can choose their own paths. Therefore, it is important that entries are written in as lucid a style as possible and the use of undefined jargon is avoided. Users will include:

  • Police professionals seeking specific information on practices in other countries
  • Policy makers looking for guidance in creating appropriate policing structures
  • National and international organizations fostering cooperation among policing jurisdictions
  • Scholars, whether students, writers, or researchers, seeking a better understanding of the various policing structures worldwide
  • Teachers seeking a distillation of research that has taken place outside their own specialty
  • The general public with an interest in police methods and practices

Contributors should write for the least experienced likely reader, in so far as they judge this to be possible without loss of accuracy. A typical entry should be written at a level accessible to first-year undergraduates.


To serve a wide range of users, each article should be written in a clear accessible style. Include all relevant factual information, and present controversial issues in a fair, balanced manner. Your article will comprise the four major sections discussed below.


Background Material
Each article should start with a very brief history of the country to provide context. The major challenges facing the country should be discussed. Than give statistics that will impart a brief overview of the country, including:

  • Its population including its racial and ethnic divisions
  • Languages
  • Major religions
  • Per capita income, and
  • Major economic activities.
  • This material may be arranged in a table/grid if convenient.


Contextual Features
This thematic section will specify the features of the country’s form of government, including its principal branches and political structure. Then its criminal justice system will be discussed, including informal mechanisms if significant. This discussion should consider:

The system of law (common, civil, Islamic, etc; adversarial, inquisitorial, colonial common, and so on)

  • Most common crimes (statistics and trends)
  • Structure and role of courts
  • Correction system structure and role.


Police Profile
This will be the longest section of your article. In defining the structural elements of the police, please cover the following:

  • Background should cover the history and development of the police system. Demographics should cover men/women; ethnic representation; uniformed/ non-uniformed/civilian; federal/national; regional/state; local/municipal employees; education and training.
  • Organizational Description should include a discussion of the strength of the force (the number of citizens vs. the number of the police). Describe who controls the police; ranks and hierarchy structure; methods of selection/promotion for each rank; criminal investigation units; special response units; support services.
  • Functions (what the police do) Describe police powers in regard to the conduct of each function. Are the police administrative, or do they only handle criminal law?
  • Training What are the requirements for joining each police force, including schooling?
  • Police Public Projects Include crime prevention, traffic control, school programs, and so on.
  • Police Use of Firearms Describe laws and regulations; practice and traditional frequency of use/discharge of firearms; firearms ownership laws/regulations.
  • Complaints and Discipline (accountability; complaint procedures – methods of handling and disposal) This should include a discussion of human rights training. Are the police trained in the internationally recognized Human Rights? If so, describe the nature and length of training, including who does the training. Have the police come under criticism for human rights violations? Describe any programs that exist in your country to control and investigate human rights violations. What do the police do to ensure a climate of respect for human rights inside its organizations? Outside its organizations (in regard to the public)?
  • Terrorism Describe any terrorist organizations (include domestic and international connections) that exist in your country. Specify the police agencies charged with responding to terrorism.
  • International Cooperation Enumerate any areas of international cooperation and the countries involved. Specify any international assistance received in training. Is there an exchange of officers among countries? At what levels?


Police Education, Research, and Publications
This section will be a combination of lists and discussions as best suits the material. The following should be included:

  • Institutions for higher education of the police (local and frequently used foreign institutions)
  • Leading researchers/authors/reporters/columnists with affiliations.
  • Extent and sources of funding for police research (inside/outside the country); areas of recent research with titles published and brief descriptions of topics.
  • Leading police journals/magazines/newsletters or other such publications regularly containing police articles; note editors and editorial office addresses
  • Cite the major police publications (books/reports) and their language(s) of publication during the last two years.
  • List of police-related websites (URL addresses)


Each article should end with a relevant bibliography.


Like all academic reference works, the Encyclopedia overall should serve as a reliable, objective, and authoritative source. Contributors should carefully mark any transition from factual to interpretive or controversial material. It is always most appropriate in an encyclopedia article to summarize debates rather than participate in them.

In addition, an encyclopedia should have an objective tone. Please avoid hyperbole and unsupported statements about the importance, virtue, or glory of a country, its people, and its police. Facts and statistics are preferable to adjectives such as “heavy” in “heavy punishment.”


International Scope
The World Police Encyclopedia will represent a diversity of international perspectives, in terms of the practice and study of police worldwide. When looking at the traditions in different cultures and countries, please keep in mind that the users of the Encyclopedia will be located in many countries, and they will use the Encyclopedia to help them compare policing systems and practices. Insofar as possible, the articles should be comparable; this is another reason to avoid adjectives and focus on facts.


Structure and Style
This is the title of your article, in this case the name of the country under discussion.


Subheads should be on a line of their own, underlined, and preceded and followed by a line space. Your article will have four major subheads – one for each of the major divisions specified in Coverage and Treatment, pp. 3-4. Further divisions should be added as needed for clarity.


Length of entries
Entries will range in length from 2500 words to a maximum of 5000 words.

To control the editorial balance and the budget of the entire project, it is crucial that each contributor keep to the word length specified in the contract. The number of words commissioned per entry includes the main body of text. The word count does not include the bibliography. Please indicate the number of words in your contribution(s), in parentheses, at the end.


Dual Structure
We wish to cater to two broad types of user. There are the readers who are in a position to read an entry at length and in some detail, and there are readers who have less time or require less depth, who will turn to the Encyclopedia for rapid reference or orientation on a particular topic.

All entries should therefore be “facts-fronted”: their opening paragraph should form a digest of the material that follows.


Bibliographies, References, Further Reading
References and further reading should appear in a single list, with the heading “References and Further Reading”. References and further reading are not included in the total word count for the entry. As it is important that this list be as up-to-the-minute as possible, authors may be required to update their bibliographies when reviewing the copyedited manuscript.


Number of items to be listed
The total number of items listed should normally be kept within the following ranges and should not exceed 20 items without consultation with the Editor or Publisher:

  • 6-12 texts for 2,500 word entries
  • 8-16 texts for 5,000 word entries


References within the body of the entry should be avoided whenever possible, but when unavoidable should not exceed six, even in the longest entries. Any references that are included in the text should follow the Harvard system, citing the author’s surname, year of publication, and page reference in parentheses immediately after the quoted material, e.g. (Swanwick 1988:56). The full details should be given in the references and further reading section at the end of the entry.


Special cases

  • Please attempt to cite works in English whenever possible. If sources in languages other than English are essential, they may be included. A preferred English translation should also be specified if possible. If no English translation exists for a work in a non-European language, please give a translation of the title in parentheses, as well as listing in the original language.
  • Specify an edition for any work; give “standard” editions of classic works rather than the most recent.
  • Works that most users would not be able to find in a research library should be avoided.
  • For citation of electronic sources, please refer to the Columbia Guide to Online Style by Janice R. Walker and Todd Taylor (Columbia UP, 1998) and follow the suggestions for Humanities Style.


Bibliographical style details

  • Items should appear in alphabetical order of author surname
  • Arrange books and articles by a single author in date order
  • For second and subsequent works by the same author, use a long dash (six hyphens) rather than repeat the author’s full name
  • Next list books written by this author with one other author in alphabetical order of second author


Examples of bibliographic formats

Carpenter, Mary. George Eliot and the Landscape of Time: Narrative Form and Protestant

Apocalyptic History. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1986.

Yang, Nak-Heong. Reformed Social Ethics and the Korean Church. New York: Peter Lang Publishing, 1997.

Co-authored Books

Hadaway, C. Kirk, and David A. Roozen. Rerouting the Protestant Mainstream. Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press, 1995.

Edited Books

Eliade, Mircea, ed. The Encyclopedia of Religion. 16 vols. New York: Macmillan, 1987.

Koppenborg, Ria, and Wouter J. Hanegraaff, eds. Female Stereotypes in Religious Traditions. Leiden; New York: E.J. Brill, 1995.

Berkeley, George. Berkeley’s Philosophical Writings. Edited by David M. Armstrong. New York: Collier Books, 1965.

Translated Books

Malebranche, Nicholas. Dialogues on Metaphysics and on Religion. Translated by Morris Ginsberg. London: G. Allen and Unwin, 1923.

European-language Books

Blickle, Peter. Die Reformation im Reich (translation). Stuttgart: UTB Verlag, 1982.

Articles In Books

Elzey, Wayne. “Popular Culture.” In Encyclopedia of American Religious Experience, edited by Charles H. Lippy and Peter W. Williams, vol. 3, 1727-1741. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1988.

Journal Articles

Hart, D. G. “Presbyterians and Fundamentalism.” Westminster Theological Journal 55, no.3 (1993): 333-342.


Davis, Roger Guion. “Conscientious Cooperators: The Seventh-day Adventists and Military Service, 1860-1945.” Ph.D. dissertation, George Washington University, 1970.


Smith, J. and Chan, K. “Protestantism in the 21st Century.” [Paper presented at the American Academy of Religion Annual Meeting, November 1999, Boston.

WWW Sites

Whizzkid, Laura P. “A Hypertext History of Protestantism.” WPC History. 1993. (2 Aug. 1996).

[Author’s Last Name, First Name.”Title of Document.” Title of Complete Work [if applicable].

Version or File Number [if applicable]. Document date or date of last revision [if different from access date]. Protocol and address, access path or directories (date of access).]


Additional Style Points


Abbreviations and Acronyms
Any abbreviation or acronym you wish to employ that may be unfamiliar to the nonspecialist user should appear in full on its first appearance in the entry, with the abbreviation or acronym in parentheses: e.g. Acquired Immunity Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). If a headword is an acronym, the full version should appear in the first sentence of the entry.


Please be sure to define terms. Remember that terms like “officer” mean different things in different countries.


Dates and time
Avoid phrases that tie the text too closely into the time of writing such as “recently,” “lately,” “up to date,” “latest” and the like. It is appropriate to specify dates, however. For a similar reason, avoid topical allusions, or examples calling for a relatively local knowledge.


Please avoid the use of italics/underline/bold for emphasis. You have chosen a word with care; let it carry its own weight.


Please make a habit of checking names, place names, dates and other basic information in the text and bibliographies of entries.


Please do not use any automatic hyphenation function on your word-processing package or add hyphens by hand.


Please use the “underline” function to indicate matter that should eventually appear in italics: for example: titles of books, plays, films, long poems, newspapers, journals (but not articles in journals) and names of ships. If we cannot use your disk, or the italic codes get lost in the conversion, it is easier for the typesetter to pick out underlining than italic in the printout.


Non-sexist usage
Copy editors will be instructed to use gender-neutral language while preserving the flow and grace of English prose style. For example, use person or individual rather than man; use humans, people, humankind rather than mankind.


There will be no footnotes in the Encyclopedia. See “Citations/References” on page 6 for further instructions.

In quotations, the exact spelling and punctuation of the original should be faithfully copied. Block quotations should not have quotation marks unless they report conversation.

They should be double-spaced like the rest of the manuscript. Your own interpolations into quoted matter should be clearly enclosed in square parentheses. Display source lines on a new line.


Tables, maps, figures
Tables should be concise and only used when they are absolutely essential. Tables should be typed on separate sheets and should be provided with a brief title located above the table. The desired location of each table should be indicated in the left-hand margin of the text. A full-page table counts as 250 words of text, and should be included in the word count as such.

The use of line drawings and graphics is discouraged.


Although encyclopedia production is a long process, we schedule editing and typesetting of the entry manuscripts in batches, and it is important that you meet the deadline specified in your contract. If circumstances change after you sign the contract and you cannot meet the deadline, please request an extension from Routledge. We will work with you to agree on a new deadline that works for your schedule and ours.


Submission of Entries
Your manuscript should be prepared using a common word processing system (Word is preferred) and be submitted both to your Associate Editor and to Kate Aker at Routledge at the same time. For each editor, submission should consist of disc or email and a printed copy. Your submitted manuscript should

  • be written in English. If this will be a problem for you, please contact your Associate Editor for help.
  • be double-spaced throughout, including the bibliography.
  • include the exact word length at the end of each entry.
  • be numbered consecutively on each page. A double-numbering system is useful: Fiji-1, Fiji-2, etc. Long names of countries may be abbreviated in a distinctive manner for this purpose: Swtz-1, etc.
  • be labeled with your name, affiliation and country at the end of each entry in your preferred form e.g. J. T. Smith, Graduate Theological Union, Berkeley, USA.

Please note your name will appear with each of your entries in the published volume, and there will be a complete listing of contributors and their affiliations at the front of the book. If you are writing more than one entry, please print them separately, and include your name on each.

You may be asked to review your contribution after it has been copyedited. If needed, we will send the edited version to you for approval and ask you to respond to any queries.

You will be informed when the Encyclopedia is published and you will be paid your honorarium on publication


Permissions for quotations and borrowing from yourself
Most published sources are protected by copyright. Laws and conventions governing the need for authors to secure written permission to reprint material from previously published works are complex and are generally based on proportion, on degree of literary quality, and on the context of quotation. If your article requires extensive quotation from previously published works, please contact Routledge for guidance and instruction. Please note that the responsibility for securing permission to reprint (and any associated fees) is the contributor’s.

Many scholars do not know that reusing their own previously published material verbatim is illegal without written permission from the publisher and inclusion in the Encyclopedia of a credit line noting that the article or parts of it originally appeared elsewhere (even if the copyright on the previously published work’s title page is in your name). Please keep in mind that you have contracted to write an original article for Routledge. If you find it necessary to construct your article using phrases and paragraphs that you have published elsewhere, please contact Kate Aker at Routledge right away. Perhaps some change in your assignment or its emphasis is needed. In rare cases formal permission must be requested, and we can provide you with a sample permission-request letter.


For questions of substantive content, contact:

Professor Dilip Das by e-mail

For questions about procedures and manuscript preparation, send e-mail to: or write to Kate Aker, Director of Development, Routledge Reference, 29 West 35th Street, New York, NY 10001-2299.



World Police Encyclopedia


1. Background Material (2 pages) *

1.1 Map of the country

1.2 Brief history

1.3 Population (racial/ethnic divisions)

1.4 Language, religions

1.5 Per capita income/major economic activities

Major challenges facing the country

2. Contextual Features (4 pages)

2.1 Forms of Government/Principal Branches (Political Structure)

2.2 Criminal Justice System/Process

2.2.1 The system of law

2.2.2 Major crimes

2.2.3 The structure and powers of courts

2.2.4 Correctional subsystems

3. Police Profile (9 pages)

3.1 Structural elements (The Structure of the Police)

3.1.1 Historical background and development

3.1.2 Strength

3.1.3 Basic organizational description (national, regional, and local structures; ranks & hierarchy; methods of selection & promotion in regard to each and every rank, criminal investigation units; special response units; support services)

3.1.4 Function

3.1.5 Police powers in regard to conducting these functions

3.1.6 Terrorism What police agency is responsible for investigating and preventing terrorism? Does terrorist activity exist in your country? Describe the terrorist organizations, domestic and international connections.

3.1.7 Human rights initiatives and projects

3.1.8 Police Public Projects

3.1.9 Training

3.1.10 Are police officers trained in Human Rights also?

3.1.11 How long is the training on human rights and who does the training?

3.1.12 Police use of Firearms (firearm ownership in the country)

3.1.13 Complaints and discipline

3.1.14 Have the police in your country come under criticism for human rights violations?

3.1.15 Does any program exist in your country to control and investigate human rights violations?

3.1.16 What do the police do to ensure a climate of respect for human rights in and outside the organization?

4. International Cooperation

4.1 Enumerate the areas of international cooperation and

4.2 Enumerate the countries you involve in cooperative efforts.

5. Police Education, Research and Publications (5 pages)

5.1 Institutions for police education (in addition to professional training institutions)

5.2 Leading police researchers/authors with affiliations

5.3 Review of the major police publications (language/languages) during the last two years

5.4 Sources of funding for police research and areas of research

5.5 Leading journals, periodicals, magazines, (language/languages); editors/addresses, titles of the publication, description of topics

5.6 Police-related websites: please give name, short description and URL

6. Bibliographical References (additional pages)

Please include the sources you refer to in your essay on the police.

*Pages are indicated for the long essays. If the short essay is needed, the pages should be accordingly reduced.